Quick Reference: Operators
Operators are mathematical and logical words and symbols you can use in an expression. The operators are each described in detail later in this section. For reference, they are listed here by category.
On this page:
Mathematical Operators
Operator  Behavior 

+, plus  addition 
, minus  subtraction 
*, times, multiplied by 
multiplication 
/, divided by 
division 
^  exponentiation (raise to a power) 
squared  raise to the second power 
to the power of  raise to the power specified 
cubed  raise to the third power 
%, percent  percent 
div  integer division 
rem  integer remainder 
modulo, mod  mathematical modulo 
is a multiple of, is divisible by  test for exact multiple of a number 
rounded to  round to a number of decimal places 
rounded to nearest  round to the nearest multiple of a value 
Comparison Operators
Operator  Behavior 

= is are equals equal to does equal are equal the same 
Equal. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
<> is not are not does not equal is not equal to isn't aren't doesn't equal isn't equal to 
Not equal. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
< is less than comes before is earlier than is not greater than or equal to 
Less than. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
> is greater than is more than comes after is later than is past is not less than or equal to 
Greater than. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
<= is less than or equal to does not come after is not greater than is not later than is not past is at most is no more than 
Less than or equal to. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
>= is greater than or equal to does not come before is not less than is not earlier than is at least is no less than 
Greater than or equal to. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
between is between is not between comes between does not come between 
Tests whether a value is within a range of values. See Comparison Operators for more details. 
Logical Operators
Operator  Behavior 

and  logical and 
and if  shortcircuit logical and 
or  logical inclusive or 
or if  shortcircuit logical inclusive or 
not  logical negation 
Text Operators
Operator  Behavior 

& 
Text string concatenation. See Text Operators for more details. 
&& 
Text concatenation with space inserted. See Text Operators for more details. 
is in is contained by is not in isn't in 
One string contained in another, or value contained in a list. See Text Operators for more details. 
contains does not contain doesn't contain 
One string contains another, or value contained in a list. See Text Operators for more details. 
is among is not among isn't among 
One value is present among the chunks, items, keys or values of another. See Text Operators for more details. 
begins with does not begin with doesn't begin with 
One string begins with another, or list begins with a value or sublist. See Text Operators for more details. 
ends with does not end with doesn't end with 
One string ends with another, or list ends with a value or sublist. See Text Operators for more details. 
Property List Operators
Operator  Behavior 

add properties from one property list to those from another 

add properties from one property list to those from another, overriding duplicates 

remove specified properties from a property list 

remove properties from a property list, other than those specified 
Date Operators
Operator  Behavior 

time prior to now 

time later than now 
Miscellaneous Operators
Operator  Behavior 

grouping 

tests for types (number, integer, point, rect, date, logical, color) 

yields true if the specified object or file exists 

yields true if the specified object or file exists 

tests whether a point or rectangle is within a rectangle 

list concatenation 

converts a list or property list to text 

converts text to a list or property list 

converts a value to a given internal representation 

selector expression 