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Quick Reference: Operators

Operators are mathematical and logical words and symbols you can use in an expression. The operators are each described in detail later in this section. For reference, they are listed here by category.

Mathematical Operators

+, plusaddition
-, minussubtraction
*, times, multiplied bymultiplication
/, divided bydivision
^exponentiation (raise to a power)
squaredraise to the second power
to the power ofraise to the power specified
cubedraise to the third power
%, percentpercent
divinteger division
reminteger remainder
modulo, modmathematical modulo
is a multiple of, is divisible bytest for exact multiple of a number
rounded toround to a number of decimal places
rounded to nearestround to the nearest multiple of a value

Comparison Operators

=, is, are, equals, equal to, does equal, are equal, the sameequal
<>, is not, are not, does not equal, is not equal to, isn't, aren't, doesn't equal, isn't equal tonot equal
<, is less than, comes before, is earlier than, is not greater than or equal toless than
>, is greater than, is more than, comes after, is later than, is past, is not less than or equal togreater than
<=, is less than or equal to, does not come after, is not greater than, is not later than, is not past, is at most, is no more thanless than or equal to
>=, is greater than or equal to, does not come before, is not less than, is not earlier than, is at least, is no less thangreater than or equal to
between, is between, is not between, comes between, does not come betweenwhether a value is within a range of values

Logical Operators

andlogical and
and ifshort-circuit logical and
orlogical inclusive or
or ifshort-circuit logical inclusive or
notlogical negation

Text Operators

&text string concatenation
&&text concatenation with space inserted
is in, is contained by, is not in, isn't inone string contained in another, or value contained in a list
contains, does not contain, doesn't containone string contains another, or value contained in a list
is among, is not among, isn't amongone value is present among the chunks, items, keys or values of another
begins with, does not begin with, doesn't begin withone string begins with another, or list begins with a value or sublist
ends with, does not end with, doesn't end withone string ends with another, or list ends with a value or sublist

Property List Operators

addingadd properties from one property list to those from another
replacingadd properties from one property list to those from another, overriding duplicates
removingremove specified properties from a property list
retainingremove properties from a property list, other than those specified

Date Operators

agotime prior to now
hence, from nowtime later than now

Miscellaneous Operators

( )grouping
is atests for types (number, integer, point, rect, date, logical, color)
there is ayields true if the specified object or file exists
existsyields true if the specified object or file exists
is withintests whether a point or rectangle is within a rectangle
&&&list concatenation
joined byconverts a list or property list to text
split byconverts text to a list or property list
asconverts a value to a given internal representation
(if ... then ... else ...)selector expression