# Arithmetic Calculations in SenseTalk

You can perform mathematical operations in SenseTalk by using mathematical operators as well as a variety of commands and functions. For detailed information about using operators, see the Expressions page, which describes the basics of using expressions in SenseTalk and links to pages for specific mathematical operators (+, -, *, and other operators) and other useful concepts such as comparisons and logical operators.

SenseTalk's arithmetic commands and functions also provide useful tools for working with numbers. Arithmetic Commands can be used to modify numeric values stored in containers. These commands perform the same arithmetic functions as the +, -, *, and / operators. The difference is that these commands take one of their operands from a container and store the result of the calculation back into that container. Arithmetic Functions operate on numbers. You can use these functions to manipulate numbers in a variety of ways.

In a topic related to arithmetic calculations, Points and Rectangles describes how SenseTalk understands the concepts of geometric points and rectangles. Any list of two numbers, or a text string consisting of two numbers separated by a comma, can be treated as a point. The functions explained on the Points and Rectangles page can be used to extract the various component values of a point or rectangle.

## Arithmetic Commands​

There are four arithmetic commands:

Use them to modify values stored in containers. These commands perform the same arithmetic functions as the +, -, *, and / operators. The difference is that these commands take one of their operands from a container and store the result of the calculation back into that container.

### `Add` Command​

Behavior: Use the `add` command when you want to add a number to the value in a container, replacing the value in the container by the sum. Lists of values can be added, provided that both the source and destination lists contain the same number of items. Each item from the source list is added to the corresponding item of the destination container. NumExpr is a source expression. It can be a number, any formula, or another container. Chunk is a chunk expression describing part of a container (lines, words, items, or characters). Container is any container.

Syntax:
add numExpr to {chunk of} container

Example:

``add amount to dollarsVariable``

Example:

``add 37 to item 2 of line 3 of scores``

Example:

``add speed * time to item 1 of distances``

Example:

``add [10,5] to centerPoint``

Related:

### `Subtract` Command​

Behavior: Use the `subtract` command when you want to subtract a number from the value in a container, replacing the value in the container by the result. Lists of values can be subtracted, provided that both the source and destination lists contain the same number of items. Each item from the source list is subtracted from the corresponding item of the destination container. NumExpr is a source expression. It can be a number, any formula, or another container. Chunk is a chunk expression describing part of a container (lines, words, items, or characters). Container is any container.

Syntax:
subtract numExpr from {chunk of} container

Example:

``subtract checkAmt from accountBalance``

Example:

``subtract 1 from property CountDown of gameController``

Example:

``subtract rate * pmt from line 4 of amortization``

Example:

``subtract [1,2] from boxDimensions``

Related:

### `Multiply` Command​

Behavior: Use the `multiply` command when you want to multiply a value in a container by another number, replacing the value in the container by the product. Lists of values can be multiplied, provided that both the source and destination lists contain the same number of items, or that the source is a single value. Each item in the destination container is multiplied by the corresponding item of the source list, or by the source value. NumExpr is a source expression. It can be a number, any formula, or another container. Chunk is a chunk expression describing part of a container (lines, words, items, or characters). Container is any container.

Syntax:
multiply {chunk of} container by numExpr

Example:

``multiply score by weightingFactor``

Example:

``multiply accountBalance by 1 + interestRate``

Example:

``multiply item 3 of line x of table by 2``

Related:

### `Divide` Command​

Behavior: Use the `divide` command when you want to divide a value in a container by another number, replacing the value in the container by the quotient. Lists of values can be divided, provided that both the source and destination lists contain the same number of items, or that the source is a single value. Each item in the destination container is divided by the corresponding item of the source list, or by the source value. NumExpr is a source expression. It can be a number, any formula, or another container. Chunk is a chunk expression describing part of a container (lines, words, items, or characters). Container is any container.

Syntax:
divide {chunk of} container by numExpr

Example:

``divide score by totalCount``

Example:

``divide item 1 of balances by 12``

Related:

## Arithmetic Functions​

Use these functions to manipulate numbers.

### `Abs`, `As a positive number`, `As a negative number` functions​

Behavior: Returns the absolute value of its numeric parameter. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number regardless of its sign — it is always positive or zero. `As a positive number` returns the absolute value. `As a negative number` returns the negative absolute value.

Syntax:
the abs of numFactor
abs( numExpr )
numFactor as a positive number
numFactor as a negative number

Example:

``put abs(-11) --> 11``

Example:

``if height is a negative number then put abs(height) into height``

Example:

``put (3 - 16) as a positive number --> 13``

Example:

``put 500 as a negative number --> -500``

### `Annuity` function​

Behavior: Calculates the present value of an ordinary annuity with payments of one unit, based on the specified interest rate per period and the number of periods.

Syntax:
annuity( interest, periods )

Example:

``put annuity(1%, 32) --> 27.269589``

Related:

### `ATan` Function​

Behavior: Returns the trigonometric arctangent of its parameter as an angle expressed in radians.

Syntax:
the atan of numFactor
atan( numExpr )

Example:

``put atan(19) --> 1.518213``

Related:

### `Average` Function​

Behavior: Returns the average of its parameters. numList may either be a list of numbers, an expression which evaluates to a list of numbers separated by commas, or a combination of these, nested to any depth.

Syntax:
{the} average of numList
average( numList )

Example:

``put average(8, 10, 12) --> 10``

Example:

``if the average of [x,y,z] is greater than z then  put "Z is below average!"end if``

Related:

### `Compound` Function​

Behavior: Computes the principal plus accrued interest on an investment of 1 unit, based on the specified interest rate and the number of periods.

Syntax:
compound( interest, periods )

Example:

``put compound(7,25%, 6) --> 1.521892``

Example:

``put initialInvestment * compound(6.7%, 12) into currentValue``

Related:

### `Cos` Function​

Behavior: Returns the trigonometric cosine of its parameter, which is an angle expressed in radians.

Syntax:
{the} cos of numFactor
cos( numExpr )

Example:

``put cos(18) --> 0.660317``

Related:

### `Cube Root` Function​

Behavior: Computes the cube root of its parameter.

Syntax:
cube root( number )
{the} cube root of number

Example:

``put cube root (27) --> 3``

Example:

``put the cube root of 8 --> 2``

Related:

### `Exp` Function​

Behavior: Returns the natural exponential of its parameter (that is, the mathematical constant e raised to the power of the parameter).

Syntax:
{the} exp of numFactor
exp( numExpr )

Example:

``put exp(2) --> 7.389056``

Related:

### `Exp1` Function​

Behavior: Returns one less than the natural exponential of its parameter (that is, the mathematical constant e raised to the power of the parameter, minus 1).

Syntax:
{the} exp1 of numFactor
exp1( numExpr )

Example:

``put expl(2) --> 6.389056``

Related:

### `Exp2` function​

Behavior: Returns 2 raised to the power of its parameter.

Syntax:
{the} exp2 of numFactor
exp2( numExpr )

Example:

``put exp2(8) --> 256``

Related:

### `Frac` Function​

Behavior: Returns the fractional part of a number. Use the `trunc` function to get the whole number part of a value. The `trunc` and `frac` functions are defined such that `trunc(x) + frac(x)` is always equal to `x`.

Syntax:
{the} frac of numFactor
frac( numExpr )

Example:

``put frac(81.236) --> .236``

Related:

### `Ln` Function​

Behavior: Returns the natural logarithm of its parameter.

Syntax:
{the} ln of numFactor
ln( numExpr )

Examples

``put ln(2) --> 0.693147``

Related:

### `Ln1` Function​

Behavior: Returns the natural logarithm of 1 more than its parameter.

Syntax:
{the} ln1 of numFactor
ln1( numExpr )

Example:

``put ln1(2) --> 1.098612``

Related:

### `Log2` Function​

Behavior: Returns the base 2 logarithm of its parameter.

Syntax:
{the} log2 of numFactor
log2( numExpr )

Example:

``put log2(256) --> 8``

Related:

### `Maximum`, `Max`, `HighestValue`, `LargestValue` Functions​

Behavior: Returns the highest number from a list. The `maximum` function may be abbreviated as `max`. numList may be a list of numbers, an expression which evaluates to a list of numbers separated by commas, or a combination of these, nested to any depth.

Syntax:
{the} [max | maximum | highest value | largest value] of numFactor
[max | maximum | highestValue | largestValue]( numExpr )

Example:

``put max(4, 6, 5, 7, 3) --> 7``

Example:

``if the maximum of [x,y,z] is z then  put "Z is the greatest!"end if``

Example:

``put largestValue of [2,23,45,76] --> 76``

Example:

``put the highest value of [3,42,9,13,21] --> 42``

Related:

### `Median` Function​

Behavior: Returns the median (middle value) of its parameters, or the average of the two middle values. numList may either be a list of numbers, an expression which evaluates to a list of numbers separated by commas, or a combination of these, nested to any depth. If numList contains an odd number of numbers, the median is the middle value of the sorted list of numbers, otherwise it is the average of the two middle values.

Syntax:
{the} median of numList
median( numList )

Example:

``put median(1, 2, 8, 9, 12) --> 8``

Example:

``put the median of "2,7,8,10" --> 7.5``

Related:

### `Minimum`, `Min`, `LowestValue`, `SmallestValue` Functions​

Behavior: Returns the lowest number from a list. The `minimum` function may be abbreviated as `min`. numList may be a list of numbers, an expression which evaluates to a list of numbers separated by commas, or a combination of these, nested to any depth.

Syntax:
{the} [min | minimum | lowest value | smallest value] of numList
[min | minimum | lowestValue | smallestValue]( numList )

Example:

``put min(4,6,5,7,3) --> 3``

Example:

``if the min of [x,y,z] is z then put "Z is the smallest!"``

Example:

``put lowestValue of [3,9,13,21,42] --> 3``

Example:

``put smallest value of [9,13,21,56,72] --> 9``

Related:

### `Payment` Function​

Behavior: Returns the payment amount of a loan, given a loan amount, interest rate, term, and frequency of payments.

Syntax:
{the} {daily | weekly | monthly | quarterly | yearly | annual} payment on {a} {loan of} principal {loan} at {a rate of} rate {interest} for {a term of} term { {with} [ [payments | paid] frequency | frequency payments] }

payment( loanProperties )
payment( principal, rate, term {, frequency} )

If loanProperties is given as a property list, it should include:

• Principal or Amountprincipal amount of the loan (may be specified with a currency unit)
• Rate — interest rate of the loan (may be specified as percent per year, calendarQuarter, month, week, day — if per period is not specified, annual interest rate is assumed)
• Term — the term length of the loan (may be given as a duration of time or as a number of payments. If a number of payments is used (with no duration units), then frequency parameter is required)
• Frequency — the frequency of loan payments (optional if loan term is given as a duration) — may be one of these terms: monthly, months, calendarMonths, quarterly, calendarQuarters, annual, annually, yearly, years, calendarYears, decades, calendarDecades

If the principal is given in units of a particular currency, then the payment amount returned will have the same units. If term is specified with units of duration and frequency is omitted, then the term's units will be used as the frequency of payments.

Example:

``put payment(amount:\$1000, rate: 6.5% per year, term:60 months) --> \$19.566148put payment(\$10000,7.5%,60,"months") --> \$200.379486``

Example:

``put the monthly payment on a ten thousand dollar loan at 4.5% yearly for 10 years --> \$103.638409put payment on a loan of \$50000 at 7 percent interest for 60 months rounded to 2 places --> \$990.06``

Related:

### `Random` Function​

Behavior: Returns a randomly generated integer between 1 and the value of its parameter, or between two values, inclusive.

Syntax:
{the} random of numFactor
random( numExpr {, secondExpr} )

Example:

``put random(12) -- returns any number from 1 to 12``

Example:

``put random(20,30) -- gets a number from 20 to 30, inclusive``

Example:

``put (random(100) / 100) into randomPercentage``

Related:

### `Reset Random` Command​

Behavior: Resets the random number generator sequence used by the `random` function and whenever SenseTalk selects things at random. By setting a specific seedExpr value for the random number generator, you can obtain a repeatable sequence of "random" events. This can be very useful for testing purposes. Use the `reset random` command without a seed value to get an unpredictable sequence.

Syntax:
reset random {{with | from} {seed} seedExpr}

Example:

``reset random with seed 27``

Example:

``reset random``

Example:

``reset random 2repeat 10 times  put 1..10 into NumberRange  put any item of NumberRange into ReplaceitemNumber  log ReplaceitemNumber // Using reset random [#] as shown in line 1 results in the same list every time you run the loop.[#] can be any seed number.  // Commenting out "reset random 2" in line 1 and running the repeat loop multiple times results in a different list every time you run the loop.end repeat``

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### `Round` Function​

Behavior: Returns the value of its parameter rounded to the nearest whole number. An optional second parameter may be supplied to specify the number of decimal places to round to. A negative number of places will round to the left of the decimal point.

Syntax:
{the} round of numFactor
round( numExpr {, decimalPlaces} )

Example:

``put round(6.5) --> 7``

Example:

``put round(6.49) --> 6``

Example:

``put round(6.49 , 1) --> 6.5``

Example:

``put round(2389 , -2) --> 2400``

Related:

### `RoundToNearest` function​

Behavior: Returns the value of its first parameter rounded to the nearest whole multiple of its second parameter.

Syntax:
roundToNearest( numExpr, nearestMultiple )
numExpr rounded to {the} nearest {multiple of} nearestMultiple

Example:

``put roundToNearest(643,100) --> 600``

Example:

``put roundToNearest(643,25) --> 650``

Example:

``put 12.16 rounded to the nearest multiple of .25 --> 12.25``

Related:

### `Sin` Function​

Behavior: Returns the trigonometric sine of its parameter, which is an angle expressed in radians.

Syntax:
{the} sin of numFactor
sin( numExpr )

Example:

``put sin(18) --> -0.750987``

Related:

### `Square Root` , `SqRt` function​

Behavior: Returns the square root of its parameter.

Syntax:
{the} [square root | sqrt] of numFactor sqrt( numExpr )

Example:

``put sqrt(16) --> 4``

Example:

``put the square root of nine --> 3``

Related:

### `Sum` Function​

Behavior: Returns the sum of its parameters. numList may be a list of numbers, an expression which evaluates to a list of numbers separated by commas, or a combination of these, nested to any depth.

Syntax:
{the} sum of numList
sum( numList )

Example:

``put sum("8,1", [10,11], 12) --> 42``

Example:

``if the sum of [x,y,z] is more than 100 then  put "The sum exceeds 100"end if``

Related:

### `Tan` Function​

Behavior: Returns the trigonometric tangent of its parameter, which is an angle expressed in radians.

Syntax:
{the} tan of numFactor
tan( numExpr )

Example:

``put tan(18) --> -1.137314``

Related:

### `Trunc` Function​

Behavior: Truncates a number, returning the integer part of its parameter, and discarding any fractional part. Use the `frac` function to get the fractional part of a value. The `trunc` and `frac` functions are defined such that `trunc(x) + frac(x)` is always equal to `x`.

Syntax:
{the} trunc of numFactor
trunc( numExpr )

Example:

``put trunc(6.8) --> 6``

Example:

``put trunc(6.49) --> 6``

Related: